Finally, this is the first review that synthesizes the existing evidence on the association between SES and obesity among children in developing countries.
Results Results of the study are summarized in Table 1. Finally, we generated a list of 42 papers that fulfilled the selection criteria and entered the actual review, including 23 papers on adult men and women, 8 on women-only and 11 on children see Fig.
Table 1 Summary results. The paper is organized as follows. Assessing the titles and abstracts of each paper resulted in a shortlist of 72 papers. A highly influential review of studies on the adult population in developing countries by Monteiro et al. In this generalization, two facts commonly are overlooked: Thirdly, this review uses two indicators of development: There is some evidence that where there are gaps between high- and low-income groups, they have been closing with time among adults as those with higher incomes become more obese Jolliffe, ; Singh et al.
The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women.
Subsequent reviews covering publications from through found mixed associations 34: HDI seeks to capture the level of socioeconomic development of a country by combining three indicators — income per capita, literacy rate and life expectancy — into one composite measure.
In their comprehensive review published inSobal and Stunkard 2 found a positive relationship between SES and obesity in developing countries: We undertook further scrutiny of the full text of these 72 papers to select studies that collected data from a major city, region or nationwide excluding small town- or community-based studies through random sampling to exclude convenience- or clinic-based sampling.
Poverty in early life was linked to later childhood obesity in a recent study of 1, children in 10 U.
We examined these factors: Among men, obesity rates were fairly similar across income groups or tended to be higher at higher levels of income. This assessment was based on whether the abstract reported on the relationship between SES and obesity and whether the country of study was a developing country, according to the definition specified earlier.
Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Colorado. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. The highest rate of obesity was found in Mississippi The final section provides the general conclusions of the paper as well as recommendations for future research.
Obesity rates were higher among African Americans in all states with the highest in Mississippi After restricting the search period to publications post in order to avoid overlap with the previous review 4the final search generated papers.
Developing countries, obesity, socioeconomic status Introduction In developed countries, obesity is widely considered a condition that affects people of lower socioeconomic status SES more so than those of higher SES 1.
Our review adds value for several reasons. The sole restriction imposed on the type of study was that the underlying data had been collected on the basis of random sampling over a defined geographical unit. Means and standard deviations from — Region. Overall, the research for a greater risk of obesity is more consistent for women and children especially White women and children of low-income or low-socioeconomic status than for men.
Obesity, which is strongly linked to lifestyle behaviors, may be characterized by low levels of physical activity or high consumption of energy-dense diets, or both.
Methods The search strategy focused on extracting studies that empirically assessed the association between SES indicators and weight indicators in men, women and children in developing countries, using individual-level data.
The next section describes the search methods and selection criteria. That review also suggested that the burden of obesity was shifting from the rich towards the poor, as one moved from countries with lower gross national income GNI per capita to countries with higher GNI per capita 4.
This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. The objective of our study was to examine the relationship between socioeconomic factors and obesity.
See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Firstly, there has been a notable growth in the number of relevant studies that merit critical synthesis since the last review had been carried out: Besides physical activity, the quality and the quantity of food are important factors that contribute to obesity rates.
Mississippi had the highest rate of obesity McLaren 3 found that a positive association between higher SES and obesity tended to turn into an inverse association as one moved from countries with lower human development index HDI to countries with higher HDI 3.
Secondly, we use GNI per capita generated by two different methods in order to examine whether using one or the other affects the pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity in relation to the level of economic development. In developing countries, however, the debate continues as to whether obesity primarily affects the poor or the rich.
Obesity, BMI, Poverty, Unemployment, Food Stamps Introduction Obesity is a common manifestation of energy imbalance, which is classically defined as the balance between energy consumed, by food and drink, and energy expended through metabolism and physical activity.We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,) among children, men and women.
The regression analysis in our study showed a correlation between the increase in obesity prevalence with the increase in unemployment rates, poverty levels and percent of people receiving SNAP benefits.
Socioeconomic Status and Health Care Sharing My Own Perspective There is a strong correlation with an individual or group SES and the quality of health care received. Social Economic Class relates to what group of class an individual fit in based on their income, which can include wages, investments or other source.
Home > Obesity & Health > Relationship Between Poverty and Obesity While all segments of the U.S. population are affected by obesity, one of the common myths that exists is that all or virtually all low-income people are far more likely to be obese.
The topic is “The Correlation Between Socioeconomic Status and Obesity.” The main focus is American society but some comparison can be made with others if it helps.
The research method used for this paper is a secondary data analysis/content analysis. Socioeconomics and Obesity Among Children An analysis of the National Survey of Children’s Health found that: 2,3,4 Children of parents with less than 12 years of education had an obesity rate times higher ( percent) than those whose parents have a college degree ( percent).Download