The best-known and most-copied examples are those of the six figures of the Caryatid Porch of the Erechtheion on the Acropolis at Athens.
It was later reconstructed haphazardly with cement and iron rods. It is first recorded in the Latin form caryatides by the Roman architect Vitruvius. In addition to being a temple built in honor of the Greek Gods, the Erechtheion is also known for the unique pillars holding up the porch on the south side.
These sculptures were covered in cloth that was draped gracefully and set in such a way as to show off the female body without compromising her modesty. Image courtesy of wikispaces. No matter the original cause for it being built, the Erechtheion is a very striking structure that embodies many features common to Ancient Greek architecture.
Elgin attempted to remove a second Caryatid; when technical difficulties arose, he The caryatids on the erechtheion of to have it sawn to pieces. Religious functions[ edit ] The Erectheum was associated with some of the most ancient and holy relics of the Athenians: Porch of the Caryatids Porch of the Caryatids[ edit ] On the north side, there is another large porch with six Ionic columns, and on the south, the famous "Porch of the Maidens", with six draped female figures caryatids as supporting columns.
The sculptor and mason of the structure was Phidiaswho was employed by Pericles to build both the Erechtheum and the Parthenon. The pedestal for the Caryatid removed to London remains empty.
The Caryatids of the Erechtheion showed off the legs, body and breasts of the female form in an idealistically realistic, yet modest, way as to make them significant and noteworthy to those who came to see them.
The purpose for the Erechtheion is lightly debated. Each Caryatid was cleaned in place, with a television circuit relaying the spectacle live to museum visitors.
The reassembled Caryatid, along with the four others remaining in Athens, are having their decayed patina thoroughly restored by laser, and are on display in the new museum. It is believed to have been a replacement for the Peisistratid temple of Athena Polias destroyed by the Persians in BC.
Wikimedia Foundation, 19 Sept. What is unique about these pillars is that they are shaped in the form of women and are called Caryatids, which is a human figure acting as a column khanacademy. The later male counterpart of the caryatid is referred to as a telamon plural telamones or atlas plural atlantes — the name refers to the legend of Atlaswho bore the sphere of the heavens on his shoulders.
He stated in his 1st century BC work De architectura I. Related Please show your support for this site by using my affiliate link to purchase goods from Amazon. Here is this poor little caryatid who has tried—and failed, fallen under the load The British Museum, n.
Although of the same height and build, and similarly attired and coiffed, the six Caryatids are not the same: The features of the Caryatids of the Erechtheion would soon become common across the Greek architectural community and a classic representation of the art of that age.
Khan Academy, 1 Oct. The five originals that are in Athens are now being exhibited in the new Acropolis Museumon a special balcony that allows visitors to view them from all sides. Those previous caryatid, though used in the same manner, did not receive the same notoriety as the Caryatids of the Erechtheion.
Other current thinking  would have the entire interior at the lower level and the East porch used for access to the great altar of Athena Polias via a balcony and stair and also as a public viewing platform. Wadsworth Cengage Learning, There is no extra fee for you, I just get a small commission based of of your purchases.
An olive tree remains on the Western side of the Erechtheus, though it was planted there in modern times by Sophia of Prussiagranddaughter of Queen Victoriain honour of the Athenians.
In the early 17th century, interior examples appear in Jacobean interiors in England; in Scotland the overmantel in the great hall of Muchalls Castle remains an early example.
The Persians had destroyed much of the city during a recent invasion, so Pericles, the general of Athens from BC, commissioned two men to restore the damaged buildings atop the Acropolis. Its architect may have been Mnesiclesand it derived its name from a shrine dedicated to the legendary Greek hero Erichthonius.
Caryatids remained part of the German Baroque vocabulary illustration, right and were refashioned in more restrained and "Grecian" forms by neoclassical architects and designers, such as the four terracotta caryatids on the porch of St Pancras New ChurchLondon Caryatids of this period often have a short column drum above the head in order to facilitate the join with the column capital.
The Erechtheion. The most famous Caryatids are the six which support the roof of the false south. Around BC, Erechtheion was being built on the Acropolis in Athens.
Some of the most striking features of that building are the Caryatid of the Erechtheion and their importance to Greek architectural history. The Erechtheum went through a period of restoration from to Previous attempted restorations by Greece damaged the roof of the Caryatids' porch with concrete patches, along with major damage caused by pollution in Athens.
The Erechtheion, B.C.E. (Classical Greek), Acropolis, Athens Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker If you're seeing this message, it means we're having. Caryatids The Porch of the Maidens is the most famous element of the Erechtheion, because of the caryatids. A caryatid is essentially a column.
The Erechtheion has suffered a troubled history of misuse and neglect, but with its prominent position above the city and porch of six Caryatids, it remains one of the most distinctive buildings from antiquity.Download